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Mahmood Kapustin
Mahmood Kapustin

Crystal Gold



Single-crystal gold nanospheres with controlled diameters in the range 5-30 nm were synthesized by using a facile approach that was based on successive seed-mediated growth. The key to the success of this synthesis was the use of hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) as a capping agent and a large excess of ascorbic acid as a reductant to ensure fast reduction and, thus, single crystallinity and a spherical shape of the resultant nanoparticles. The diameters of the gold nanospheres could be readily controlled by varying the amount of seeds that were introduced into the reaction system. The gold nanospheres could be produced with uniform diameters of up to 30 nm; thus, their localized surface plasmon resonance properties could be directly compared with the results that were obtained from theoretical calculations. Interestingly, we also found that these gold nanospheres self-assembled into dimers, larger aggregates, and wavy nanowires when they were collected by centrifugation, dispersed in deionized water, and then diluted to different volumes with deionized water.




crystal gold


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Pouring a bright golden colour, Crystal Gold is a delicate and clean lager, smooth in texture with a touch of sweetness to finish. Light and refreshing, this easy-drinker will perk you right up. Crystal Gold is also vegan friendly.


exactly as the original edition, very good in quality and the smell lasts minimum two days on your skin. don't get the regular edition, just get the gold one. huge difference !. i am ordering 2 more bottles.


The chic and bold silhouette of this sunglass is empowering. From classic tortoises to sheer lilac, it is sure to complement your individual style and confidence. Beveled Japanese acetate and 24K gold plated titanium core wire detail with precision engraved BP icon logo throughout.


Swarovski crystal is a delicate material that must be handled with special care. To ensure that your Swarovski product remains in the best possible condition over an extended period of time, please observe the advice below to avoid damage:Jewelry & Watches:Store your jewelry in the original packaging or a soft pouch to avoid scratches.Avoid contact with water.Remove jewelry before washing hands, swimming, and/or applying products (e.g. perfume, hairspray, soap, or lotion), as this could harm the metal and reduce the life of the plating, as well as cause discoloration and loss of crystal brilliance. Avoid hard contact (i.e. knocking against objects) that can scratch or chip the crystal.Figurines & Decorative Objects:Polish your product carefully with a soft, lint free cloth or clean it by hand with lukewarm water. Do not soak your crystal products in water.Dry with a soft, lint free cloth to maximize brilliance.Avoid contact with harsh, abrasive materials and glass/window cleaners.When handling your crystal, it is advisable to wear cotton gloves to avoid leaving fingerprints.


In recent literature, it has been demonstrated that control of size, and in certain cases of shape [11], of gold nanoparticles could be achieved by the addition of a small amount of silver seeds into the growth solution, where gold is reducing and forming nanoparticles. In particular, gold nanorods are synthesized in presence of silver nitrate and the control of lateral dimensions of the obtained rods should be attributed to silver ions: the higher the amount of silver the smaller the length of obtained rods [12]. Size, shape, and optical properties of the obtained nanosystems may vary depending on the technique employed for their synthesis. Recently, AuAg core-shell and hollow nanoparticles have been prepared and discussed in terms of their photothermal properties [13,14,15], but recently published numerical simulations suggest that AuAg alloy nanosystems are characterized by sharper and more intense absorption properties compared to core-shell structures [16]. Moreover, the ratio between gold and silver atoms seems to play a role in determining the position of the LSPR peak [17].


(a) TEM image of AuAgNTrs@PEG. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrum (EDXS) mapping of (b) Ag and (c) Au signal. (d) Overlap image composed of the Ag and Au EDXS signal. (e) Representative EDXS spectrum (Cu peaks belong to TEM grid) and (f) selected-area electron-diffraction (SAED) pattern analysis for observed nanotriangles compared to the simulated reflections for the Au face-centered cubic (FCC) crystal structures.


An experimental SAED pattern analysis of the characterized nanotriangles demonstrates a good match with the simulated SAED pattern calculated from the face-centered cubic (FCC) Au crystal structures (Figure 2f). In general, solution-prepared Au and Ag triangular nanoprisms are single crystalline structures with FCC lattice parameters [22]. Dry mass was estimated to be 0.45 mg/mL, mainly attributed to the PEG coating. Finally, we determined the optical properties of the obtained particles by UV-Vis analysis and observed a single broad peak with a λmax of 578 nm and a shoulder at 730 nm (Figure 1), which is expected due to the smaller dimensions of our nanotriangles in comparison to others reported in the literature so far [23].


In fact, Herkimer Diamonds are not diamonds. A true diamond is one of the hardest elements scoring a ten on a one to ten hardness scale. Herkimer Diamonds are harder than all quartz crystals. They fall at about 7.5 on the Mohs hardness scale, giving the real diamond a close race.


Herkimer Diamonds are very pure, doubly terminated quartz crystals that are found exclusively in upstate New York in 500 million year old metamorphic sedimentary dolostone. They were first discovered in the Herkimer County area in the late 18th century and their extreme clarity and naturally bright crystal surfaces made them reminiscent of diamonds, leading to their name. The crystals themselves formed extremely slowly some 400 million years ago in small solution cavities or vugs contained deep within the dolostone. These vugs gave the ions of silicon and oxygen, the constituents of quartz, the time and space needed to form into the beautiful crystals that we see today.


Producing thin, flexible semiconductors can be an expensive business, thanks to the pricey materials and procedures required for making an ordered substrate on which to grow the crystalline layers that provide desirable electrical properties. Now, researchers have developed a cost-effective and efficient method by which to produce a free-standing, inert gold foil which could serve as a basis for flexible electronics such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs) or solar cells.


Switzer and his colleagues experimented with electrochemical deposition to grow an epitaxial gold foil deposited on top of a crystalline substrate. After depositing the gold layer on a single crystalline silicon substrate, they irradiated the surface with light to catalyze a photoelectrochemical reaction to oxidize the silicon. The gold foil maintained its ordered structure while a layer of SiOx grew between the gold and silicon.


On the newly made foils, he then grew epitaxial films of cuprous oxide to form a diode; and zinc oxide nanowires to use as a wide bandgap semiconductor in LEDs and piezoelectric devices. These and other applications exploit the transmittance and flexibility of the gold foil.


An ongoing challenge is how to maintain flexibility in inorganic semiconductor materials grown on the gold: while the foil substrate is flexible, the rigid semiconductor layers are prone to cracking. A possible solution is to lithographically apply patterns of semiconductor onto the flexible gold foil such that flexing occurs only in the gold in between patterns of semiconductor. Next steps include investigating how different metals such as silver could be used to produce foils with enhanced conductivity and flexibility, and conducting rigorous studies of how these epitaxial foil-based semiconductors improve relative to polycrystalline films.


Reginald Penner, a professor of chemistry at the University of California, Irvine, who was not involved in this work, says that these ultrathin gold foils are likely to find applications for the fabrication of flexible Schottky photovoltaics where any single crystalline n-type semiconductor is grown epitaxially onto the gold. Referring to the metal-semiconductor junctions that provide a low forward voltage drop and rapid switching action, valuable for efficiency, he observes that multi-junction Schottky devices of this type could be prepared, in analogy to existing versions based upon a series of n-p semiconducting junctions." 041b061a72


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